Treatment for cancer has come a long way in the last 70 years, culminating in the recent advent of immuno-oncology. The rise of immuno-oncology has largely centered on the PD-1 and PD-L1 mechanisms, which have broad efficacy across solid tumors and are used in 23 different tumor types. Immunotherapy has resulted in improved clinical outcomes and more precise treatment but also better quality of life, and has become the first choice in many cases. Immuno-oncology agents (nivolumab, pembrolizumab and atezolizumab) are now available in the Middle East. However, for stakeholders in the region, the higher treatment costs and limited research need to be addressed.
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