A time for critical change
How PD-1/L1 has accelerated innovation in the oncology value chain
Cancer immunotherapy, which uses the body’s natural defense against cancer, has emerged as the next generation of treatment, with checkpoint inhibitors being the first type of treatment to be approved. In particular, the CTLA-4 inhibitor ipilimumab was approved in 2011. Since then, 5 PD-1/L1 molecules have been approved: pembrolizumab (2014), nivolumab (2014), atezolizumab (2016), avelumab (2017), and durvalumab (2017). This white paper provides an overview of how the advent of PD-1/L1 therapies has disrupted the stakeholder value chain in oncology.